The duty of a man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads and…attack it from every side. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.
~ Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040 CE)
In the Dark Ages (when I went to school), the focus was on ‘knowing’ science: memorizing facts and formulas with little inquiry, translation or application.
Fortunately for most American students, the focus has shifted to ‘doing’ science: conducting inquiries and constructing understanding. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have supported this shift by suggesting a three-dimensional approach:
- Crosscutting Concepts have application across all domains of science….